Interpreting references

How to interpret the information in a reference to an article.

When you find a reference to an article, it will usually include the following information:

  • Author of the article
  • Title of the article
  • Title of the periodical in which the article appears
  • Volume and issue number of the periodical in which the article appears
  • Year the article was published
  • Page numbers of the article

While all of this information is important for locating the article, the most important pieces of information are the title of the periodical and the volume or year of publication.

Below is a sample reference with parts of the reference labeled.

Reference from MLA International Bibliography