Major Research Tools

ATLA Religion Database

Coverage: 1949-present

Indexes general-interest and scholarly articles, book reviews, book chapters, and theses relating to religious concepts. Emphasis is on Christianity.

Brill's Encyclopedia of Hinduism

Full-Text, Reference

Scholarly encyclopedia covering all aspects of the Hindu tradition.

Encyclopaedia Judaica

Full-Text, Reference

Second edition (2007) of a scholarly encyclopedia covering Jewish history and culture from the time of the Second Temple to the present.

Encyclopaedia of Islam Online

Full-Text, Reference
Authoritative reference source on Islam and the Islamic world. Includes access to the completed second edition, the Glossary and Index of Terms and the in-progress third edition.

Encyclopedia of Christianity

Full-Text, Reference

Encyclopedia covering Christianity through its 2000-year history within a global context. Originally published 1999-2005.

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World: Digital Collection


"Comparative and systematic analyses of Islamic beliefs, institutions, movements, practices, and peoples on an international scale."

Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion

Full-Text, Reference

Overview articles on topics relating to the study of religion. Written by scholars and peer-reviewed.

Patrologia Latina


Electronic version of the works of the Church Fathers from Tertullian in 200 CE to the death of Pope Innocent III in 1216. Fundamental Latin texts for the study of late antiquity and early modern history.

Qurʾānic Studies Online

Full-Text, Reference

Collection of dictionaries, encyclopedia, and concordances relating to the Qur'ān, including Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān. Also includes collection of early Western Korans.

Other Suggested Research Tools


Coverage: 1875-2018

Archive of Al-Ahram ("the Pyramids"), the major daily Arabic language newspaper published in Egypt.

ARDA: Association of Religion Data Archive

Quantitative data on religion around the world; includes data on churches and church membership, religious professionals, and religious groups.

Bible Gateway

Full-Text, Gateway

Directory of internet resources for studying the Old and New Testament, plus versions of the Bible available in many different languages.

Chinese Classics and Ancient Books Database 爱如生 基本古籍库


Digitized classical texts from the pre-Qin period to the Republican era, split across 4 subject areas: Philosophy and Science; History and Geography; Art and Literature; and General Works (including encyclopedias). Note: limited to 1 user at a time.

Church Missionary Society Periodicals

Coverage: 1804-2009

Publications from the Church Missionary Society (CMS), the South American Missionary Society and the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society (CEZMS). CMS was founded in 1799 with aims including social reform in England and world evangelization. CMS was one of the most influential Protestant mission agencies and its work spread from Africa to the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Asia, Oceania and the Americas.

Compact Memory: Internet Archive of Jewish Periodicals


Digital archive of German-language Jewish newspapers and periodicals,  ca. 1768 - 1938, in Germany, Austria, and elsewhere in Central Europe.  Covers religious, political, social, cultural, and academic aspects of Jewish life.

Diversity & Tolerance in the Islam of West Africa

Full-Text, Visual Resource

This digital library contains archival and research materials such as audio and video interviews, transcripts, photographs, maps, and documents that explore Islamic practices in the West African countries of Senegal and Ghana.

Early Arabic Printed Books - Religion & Law

Coverage: 1475-1900

Digitized and fully searchable (in both Arabic and English) database of books printed in Arabic from 1475-1900 focusing on religion and law, covering topics such as The Qu'ran, traditions (Hadith), theology, fiqh and statutes, fatwas, and legal rulings. Content is sourced from the British Library.

Early English Books Online


Collection of texts printed in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and British North America and works in English printed elsewhere from 1473 to 1700. Includes literary texts, sermons, legal documents, scientific treatises, and many other types of works.

Eighteenth Century Collections Online I and II


Digital collection of 180,000 English language books, pamphlets, essays, and broadsides published from 1701 to 1800. Titles cover history, fine arts, medicine, science, literature, law, philosophy, and religion.

Encyclopaedia Islamica

Full-Text, Reference

An abridged translation of a Persian encyclopedia that is one of the most comprehensive sources on Islam and the Muslim world. Particularly strong in coverage of Shiʿi Islam. Still a work-in-progress; not many volumes of the translation have been completed yet.

Encyclopedia Mythica

Full-Text, Reference

Online encyclopedia of mythology, folklore, and religion, including an image gallery and genealogy tables.

Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture Online


Covers the history of the Jews from 1750 to the 1950s. Translation from the completed encyclopedia in the original German is still in progress.

Encyclopedia of Jewish-Christian Relations


Covers theological concepts, religious practices and rituals, and political and historical issues from the perspective of Jewish-Christian relations. Currently in pre-release format with limited entries, but when complete will contain over 200 entries.

Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World

Full-Text, Reference

Covers the Jews of Muslim lands particularly in the late medieval, early modern and modern periods.

Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Full-Text, Reference

Articles on "the relationships among human beings, their environments, and the religious dimensions of life."

Encyclopedia of Religion and Society

Full-Text, Reference

Online version of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Society (AltaMira Press, c1998). Covers world religions, religious perspectives on political and social issues, and religious leaders and scholars around the world.

Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception Online


A searchable "guide to the current state of knowledge on the background, origins, and development of the canonical texts of the Bible as they were accepted in Judaism and Christianity. The encyclopedia also documents the history of the Bible's interpretation and reception... not only in Judaism and Christianity, but also in literature, visual art, music, film, and dance, as well as in Islam and other religious traditions and new religious movements." Includes extensive bibliographical information for each entry.

Hartford Institute for Religion Research

Data, Full-Text

Conducts research on churches and congregations in America today. Includes an extensive, ongoing study of megachurches.

Historical Atlas of Islam

Full-Text, Reference

Atlas of the Islamic world showing boundaries, trade routes, railways, empires, ethnic groups, etc.

Humanities and Social Sciences Index Retrospective


Coverage: 1907-1984

Index of major journals in the humanities and social sciences.

Imperial Encyclopedia - 標點古今圖書集成


Also known as the Complete Classics Collection of Ancient China, a collection of thousands of years of knowledge covering science, history, the arts, politics, economics, and more, published during the Qing dynasty. Fully searchable, or can be browsed by chapter and section corresponding to the structure of the original texts.

Index of Medieval Art


Database of images and descriptive data related to the iconography of works of art produced between late Antiquity and the sixteenth century. Note: approximately 25% of images in the database are currently restricted and cannot be accessed. All other "public images" are available to view.

International Medieval Bibliography


Multidisciplinary bibliography indexing journal articles and "miscellany volumes" (conference proceedings, essay collections or Festschriften) covering medieval studies in disciplines ranging from history to languages to art and music.

Islamic Heritage Project


Digital collection of Islamic manuscripts, maps, and published texts from Harvard’s library and museum collections covering the 13th to 20th centuries and representing many regions, languages, and subjects.

Jewish Life in America

Coverage: c.1654-1954

Archive of documents highlighting the Jewish American culture, identity, and experiences, sourced from the American Jewish Historical Society.

JTA Jewish News Archive


Digital archive of the Jewish Telegraphic Agency, containing some 250,000 articles covering Jewish news around the world from 1923-present. Coverage of anti-semitism, the Holocaust, the story of Soviet Jews, Israel, and other topics of interest to students of modern Jewish life.

Motif-Index of Folk Literature


Classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, medieval romances, jest-books, and local legends. The above links to the index (Volume 6). To directly access other individual volumes: Vol. 1; Vol. 2; Vol. 3; Vol. 4; Vol. 5.

Oxford Reference Online: Religion

Full-Text, Reference

Collection of reference works on religion from Oxford University Press. Includes Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and the Arts and Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation.

Papal Encyclicals Online


Coverage: 1226-present

Provides links to the full text of papal encyclicals and other papal documents. Individually run website -- most documents were originally house on the Catholic Resource Network.

Pew Research Center Hispanic Trends

Data, Full-Text

Research, opinion polls (national and global), news coverage, and demographic studies focusing on the U.S. Hispanic population and immigration.

Philosopher's Index


Coverage: 1940-present

Index of books and journals in philosophy and related fields. Includes records for book reviews.

Pluralism Project at Harvard University

Data, Full-Text

For studying religious diversity in the United States. Includes a directory, statistics, and maps of religious communities around the country.

Posen Library of Jewish Culture and Civilization


Collection of Jewish literature, artwork, and works of intellectual and religious culture. Will eventually cover biblical times to the 21st century, but is still a work in progress. Note that you must register for a free account to access content.

RAMBI - Index of Articles on Jewish Studies


Selective index of thousands of journal articles, articles in collections, and chapters in books from primary and secondary sources in Hebrew, Yiddish, and European languages, offering worldwide coverage of Jewish studies and the land of Israel. From the holdings of the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem.

Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Full-Text, Reference

Core reference work covers Anglo-American, ethical and political, cross-cultural, interdisciplinary, continental, and contemporary philosophy.

Shalvi/Hyman Encyclopedia of Jewish Women

Full-Text, Reference

Encyclopedia covering the history of Jewish women. Includes thematic essays (e.g., abortion, Hadassah) as well as biographical entries.

Social Explorer

Data, Gateway, Visual Resource

Online application for locating and mapping US Census data and other demographic resources. Maps created on Social Explorer can be exported as images. To download the data itself in tabular and GIS formats see National Historical Geographic Information System (NHGIS).

Vocabulary for the Study of Religion


Online dictionary with over 400 entries covering a wide range of topics on the study of religion, including those from adjacent disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, historiography, theology, philology, literary studies, psychology, philosophy, cultural studies, and political sciences.

Yiddish Sheet Music


A collection of public-domain scores from the John Hay Library of Brown University focusing on Yiddish-language music for the stage.  Also includes art songs, folk songs, and sacred music in Yiddish and Hebrew.

YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe

Full-Text, Reference

This online encyclopedia covers the history and culture of Jews in Eastern Europe from the beginnings of their settlement in the region to the present day. Includes primary documents, images, audio, video, and maps.